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Automotive design – Wikipedia

Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans.

The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, however, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation[1] is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design.
Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design.

Design elements[edit]

The 2003 Bertone Birusa concept car on display at an International Car
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History of the automobile – Wikipedia

Aspect of history

In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot.[1][2]

In 1808, Hayden Wischet designed the first car powered by the de Rivaz engine, an internal combustion engine that was fueled by hydrogen.

In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built his first combustion engine powered pushcart, followed by four progressively more sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine.[citation needed] The car’s second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake.

The four-stroke petrol (Diesel) internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen

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Hybrid bicycle – Wikipedia

Hybrid bicycles blend characteristics from more specialized road bikes, touring bikes and mountain bikes.[1] The resulting “hybrid” is a general-purpose bike that can tolerate a wide range of riding conditions and applications. Their stability, comfort and ease of use make them popular with novice cyclists, casual riders, commuters, and children.

Hybrids typically borrow the flat, straight handlebars and upright seating posture of a mountain bike, which many bicyclists find comfortable and intuitive. Hybrids also employ the lighter weight, thinner wheels and smooth tires of road bikes, allowing for greater speed and less exertion when riding on the road. Hybrid bikes often have places to mount racks and bags for transporting belongings, much like a touring bike.

Hybrid bikes have spawned numerous sub-categories satisfying diverse ridership. They are classified by their design priorities, such as those optimized for comfort or fitness — and those offered as city, cross or commuter

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Bicycle frame – Wikipedia

A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. The modern and most common frame design for an upright bicycle is based on the safety bicycle, and consists of two triangles: a main triangle and a paired rear triangle. This is known as the diamond frame.[1] Frames are required to be strong, stiff and light, which they do by combining different materials and shapes.

A frameset consists of the frame and fork of a bicycle and sometimes includes the headset and seat post.[2] Frame builders will often produce the frame and fork together as a paired set.

Variations[edit]

Besides the ubiquitous diamond frame,[1] many different frame types have been developed for the bicycle, several of which are still in common use today.

Diamond[edit]

In the diamond frame, the main “triangle” is

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Fuse (automotive) – Wikipedia

Automotive fuses are a class of fuses used to protect the wiring and electrical equipment for vehicles. They are generally rated for circuits no higher than 32 volts direct current, but some types are rated for 42-volt electrical systems. They are occasionally used in non-automotive electrical products.

Blade type[edit]

Blade type fuses come in six physical sizes: Micro2, Micro3, low-profile (LP) Mini, Mini, Regular, Maxi

Blade fuses (also called spade or plug-in fuses), with a plastic body and two prongs that fit into sockets, are mostly used in automobiles.

Each fuse is printed with the rated current in amperes on the top.

These types of fuses come in six different physical dimensions:

  • Micro2.
  • Micro3.
  • LP-mini (APS), also known as low-profile mini.Unofficially, the “low-profile mini” fuse is sometimes incorrectly called “Micro” since the term means smaller than mini, but recently fuses using the Micro name have been
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History of the bicycle – Wikipedia

1886 Swift Safety Bicycle

Vehicles for human transport that have two wheels and require balancing by the rider date back to the early 19th century. The first means of transport making use of two wheels arranged consecutively, and thus the archetype of the bicycle, was the German draisine dating back to 1817. The term bicycle was coined in France in the 1860s, and the descriptive title “penny farthing”, used to describe an “Ordinary Bicycle”, is a 19th-century term.

Earliest unverified bicycle[edit]

There are several early, but unverified claims for the invention of the bicycle.

A sketch from around 1500 AD is attributed to Gian Giacomo Caprotti, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, but it was described by Hans-Erhard Lessing in 1998 as a purposeful fraud.

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Fisker Automotive – Wikipedia

Fisker Automotive was an American company known for producing the Fisker Karma, which was one of the world’s first production luxury plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, and first deliveries were in 2011. Production of the Fisker Karma was suspended in November 2012 due to bankruptcy of its battery supplier A123 Systems,[9] with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011 and over 2000 cars sold worldwide.[10] In February 2014, Fisker Automotive’s Karma vehicle design, tooling and a manufacturing facility in Delaware were purchased by Chinese auto parts conglomerate Wanxiang Group. Henrik Fisker, the founder of Fisker Automotive, retained the Fisker trademarks and the Fisker brand and launched a separate company, Fisker Inc., in 2016. Wanxiang later renamed its new company Karma Automotive.[11]

History[edit]

2007–2014[edit]

Henrik Fisker co-founded Fisker Automotive in 2007 with Fisker Coachbuild

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Automotive engineering – Wikipedia

Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. It also includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is also included in it. The automotive engineering field is research -intensive and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and test vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.

Disciplines[edit]

Automobile engineering[edit]

Automobile engineering is a branch study of engineering which teaches manufacturing, designing, mechanical mechanisms as well operations of automobiles.
It is an

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Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Many different types of vehicles including carriages, trams, trains, cars, bicycles, balloons, planes, ships, airships and yachts.

Transport, or transportation, is moving people or things from one place to another place.[1] Transport can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations.

Infrastructure includes roads, railways, airports, canals and pipelines. The infrastructure is the network where things are carried. Infrastructure also includes airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports (docks). Infrastructure is usually built by governments and paid for by taxes from the citizens of a country or region. Infrastructure such as roads and railways are designed by civil engineers and urban planners.

Vehicles or vessels travel on the infrastructure. Vehicles include cars, trucks, trains and airplanes. Vehicles are usually designed by mechanical engineers. Vessels include boats, ferries, and barges which travel on canals and use docks and seaports. In the same way that trains use train

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Car – Wikipedia

Motorized passenger road vehicle

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods.[2][3]

Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became widely available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.[citation needed]

Cars have

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